Bibliography of Studies & Articles on Chemical Sensitivity Published in Peer-Reviewed Journals

If you are looking for studies and research on MCS this is a great place to start. This is a list of selected studies and articles on chemical sensitivity which have been published in peer-reviewed journals.

Do you know of some studies or articles that should be listed here? Please send an e-mail to with the title and link so we can add it to the list. Thanks for sharing your resources so we can expand this list and help each other!

Research published from 2000 to June 2016

Abdullah, L., Evans, J.E., Montague, H., Reed, J.M., Moser, A., Crynen, G., Gonzalez, A., Zakirova, Z., Ross, I., Mullan, C., Mullan, M., Ait-Ghezala, G., Crawford, F. “Chronic Elevation of Phosphocholine Containing Lipids in Mice Exposed to Gulf War Agents Pyridostigmine Bromide and Permethrin.”Neurotoxicology and Teratology 40 (November-December, 2013):74-78.

Arnold Liamosas, P.A., Arrizabalaga Clement, P., Bonet Agusti, M., de la Fuente Brull, X. “Multiple Chemical Sensitivity in Sick-Building Syndrome.”Medicina Clinica (Barcelona) 126, no. 20 (May 27, 2006):774-78.

Baines, C.J., McKeown-Eyssen, G.E., Riley, N., Cole, D.E., Marshall, L., Loescher, B., Jazmaji, V. “Case-Control Study of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Comparing Haematology, Biochemistry, Vitamins and Serum Volatile Organic Compound Measures.” Occupational Medicine 54, no. 6 (September 2004):408-18.

Bell, I.R., Baldwin, C.M., Schwartz, G.E. “Sensitization Studies in Chemically Intolerant Individuals: Implications for Individual Difference Research.” Annals of the New York Academy of Science 453 (2001):38-47.

Belpomme, D., Campagnac, C., Irigaray, P. “Reliable Disease Biomarkers Characterizing and Identifying Electrohypersensitivity and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity as Two Etiopathogenic Aspects of a Unique Pathological Disorder” Review of Environmental Health 30, no. 4 (2015):251-71.

Berg, N.D., Linneberg, A., Dirksen, A., Elberling, J. “Phenotypes of Individuals Affected by Airborne Chemicals in the General Population.”International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health (August 28, 2008).

Calley, C.S., Kraut, M.A., Spence, J.S., Briggs, R.W., Haley, R.W., Hart, J. Jr. “The Neuroanatomic Correlates of Semantic Memory Deficits in Patients with Gulf War Illnesses: A Pilot Study.”Brain Imaging Behavior 4, nos. 3-4 (December 2010):248-55.

Caress, S.M., Steinemann, A.C.  “Asthma and Chemical Hypersensitivity: Prevalence, Etiology, and Age of Onset.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 25, no. 1 (February 2009):71-78.

Caress, S.M., Steinemann, A.C. “A National Population Study of the Prevalence of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Archives of Environmental Health 59, no. 6 (June 2004): 300-305.

Caress, S.M., Steinemann, A.C. “National Prevalence of Asthma and Chemical Hypersensitivity: An Examination of Potential Overlap.”Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 47, no. 5 (May 2005): 518-22.

Caress, S.M., Steinemann, A.C. “Prevalence of Fragrance Sensitivity in the American Population.” Journal of Environmental Health 71, no. 7 (March 2009):46-50.

Caress, S.M., Steinemann, A.C. “A Review of a Two-Phase Population Study of Multiple Chemical Sensitivities.” Environmental Health Perspectives 111, no. 12 (2003):1490-1497.

Caress, S.M., Steinemann, A.C., Waddick, C. “Symptomatology and Etiology of Multiple Chemical Sensitivities in the Southeastern United States.” Archives of Environmental Health 57, no. 5 (2002):429-36.

Cowan, J., Sinton, C.M., Varley, A.W., Wians, F.H., Haley, R.W., Munford, R.S. “Gene Therapy to Prevent Organophosphate Intoxication.” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 173, no. 1 (May 15, 2001):1-6.

Cui, X., Lu, X., Hiura, M., Oda, M., Miyazaki, W., et al. “Evaluation of Genetic Polymorphisms in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” PLoS ONE 8, no. 8 (August 13, 2013):e73708.

Dantoft, T.M., Elberling, J., Brix, S., Szecsi, P.B., Vesterhauge, S., Skovbjerg, S. “An Elevated Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Profile in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Psychoneuro-endocrinology 40 (February 2014):140-50.

De Luca, C., Gugliandolo, A., Calabrò, C., Currò, M., Ientile, R., Raskovic, D., Korkina, L., Caccamo, D. “Role of Polymorphisms of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances.” Mediators of Inflammation (2015):245-308.

De Luca, C., Raskovic, D., Pacifico, V., Thai, J.C., Korkina, L“The Search for Reliable Biomarkers of Disease in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity and Other Environmental Intolerances.” Intermational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8, no. 7 (July 2011):2770-97.

Elberling, J., Dirksen, A., Johansen, J.D., Mosbech, H. “The Capsaicin Cough Reflex in Eczema Patients with Respiratory Symptoms Elicited by Perfume.” Contact Dermatitis 54, no. 3 (March 2006):158-64.

Fukuyama, T., Ueda, H., Hayashi, K. Tajima, Y., Shuto, Y., Saito, T.R., Harada, T., Kosaka, T. “Detection of Low-Level Environmental Chemical Allergy by a Long-term Sensitization Method.”Toxicological Letters 180, no. 1 (July 30, 2008):1-8.

Gibson, P.R. “Chemical and Electromagnetic Exposures As Disability Barriers: Environmental Sensitivity.” Disability & Society 24, no. 2 (2009):187-99.

Gibson, P.R., Lockaby, S.D., Bryant, J.M. “Experience of Persons with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity with Mental Health Providers.” Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare 9 (2016):163-72.

Gibson, P.R. “Life Indicators, Illness Characteristics, and Psychosocial Concomitants of Self-Reported Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study.” Journal of Nursing Education and Practice 4, no. 3 (2014):204.

Gibson, P.R., Elms, A.N., Ruding, L.A. “Perceived Treatment Efficacy for Conventional and Alternative Therapies Reported by Persons with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (2003):1498-1504.

Gibson, P.R., Vogel, V.M. “Sickness Related Dysfunction in Persons with Self-Reported Multiple Chemical Sensitivity at Four Levels of Severity.” Journal of Clinical Nursing 18 (2009):72-81.

Gibson, P.R., Kovach, S., Lupfer, A. “Unmet Health Care Needs for Persons with Environmental Sensitivity.” Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare 8(January 23, 2015):59-66.

Gibson, P.R., Leaf, B., Komisarcik, V. “Unmet Medical Care Needs in Persons with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: A Grounded Theory of Contested Illness.” Journal of Nursing Education and Practice 6, no. 5 (2016):75-83.

Gibson, P.R. “Work Accommodation for People with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Disability & Society 22, no. 7 (2007):717-32.

Gibson, P.R. “Of the World But Not in It: Barriers to Community Access and Education for Persons with Environmental Sensitivities.” Health Care for Women International 31, no. 1: (2010):3-16.

Gopinath, K., Gandhi, P., Goyal, A., Jiang, L., Fang, Y., Ouyang, L., Ganji, S., Buhner, D., Ringe, W., Spence, J., Biggs, M., Briggs, R., Haley, R. “FMRI Reveals Abnormal Central Processing of Sensory and Pain Stimuli in Ill Gulf War Veterans.”Neurotoxicology 33. no. 3 (June 2012):261-71.


Haley, R.W., Charuvastra, E., Shell, W.E., Buhner, D.M., Marshall, W.W., Biggs, M.M., Hopkins, S.C., Wolfe, G.I., Vernino, S. “Cholinergic Autonomic Dysfunction in Veterans with Gulf War Illness: Confirmation in a Population-Based sample.” JAMA Neurology70, no. 2  (February 2013):191-200


Haley, R.W, Spence, J.S., Carmack, P.S., Gunst, R.F., Schucany, W.R., Petty, F., Devous, M.D.,  Sr, Bonte, F.J., Trivedi, M.H. “Abnormal Brain Response to Cholinergic Challenge in Chronic Encephalopathy from the 1991 Gulf War.” Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 171, no. 3 (March 31, 2009):207–20.


Haley, R.W, Tuite, J.J.  “Epidemiologic Evidence of Health Effects from Long-Distance Transit of Chemical Weapons Fallout from Bombing Early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

Neuroepidemiology 40, no. 3 (December 2012):178-89.

Hasegawa, M., Ohtomo, M., Mita, H., Akiyama, K. “Clinical Aspects of Patients with MCS from the Standpoint of Allergy.”Japanese Journal of Allergology 54, no. 5 (May 2005):478-84.

Heuser, G., Wu, J.C. “Deep Subcortical (Including Limbic) Hypermetabolism in Patients with Chemical Intolerance: Human PET Studies.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 933 (March 2001):319-22.

Hojo, S., Ishikawa, S., Kumano, H., Miyata, M., Sakabe, K. “Clinical Characteristics of Physician-Diagnosed Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity in Japan.” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 211, nos. 5-6 (October 2008):682-89.

Inomata, N., Osuna, H., Fujita, H., Ogawa, T. Ikezawa, Z. “Multiple Chemical Sensitivities Following Intolerance to Azo Dye in Sweets in a 5-Year-Old Girl.” Allergology International 55, no. 2 (June 2006): 203-5.

Ishibashi, M., Tonori, H., Miki, T., Miyajima, E., Kudo, Y., Tsumoda, M. Sakabe, K., Aizawa, Y. “Classification of Patients Complaining of Sick House Syndrome and/or Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 211, no. 3 (March 2007):223-33.

Jinno, H., Tanaka-Kagawa, T., Obama, T., Miyagawa, M., Yoshikawa, J., Komatsu, K., Tokunaga, H. “Impact of Air Fresheners and Deodorizers on the Indoor Total Volatile Organic Compounds.”Kokuritsu Iyakuhin Shokuhin Eisei Kenkyusho Hokoku 125 (2007):72-78.

Katoh, T., Fujiwara, Y., Nakashita, C., Lu, X., Hisada, A., Miyazaki, W., Azuma, K., Tanigawa, M., Uchiyama, I., Kunugita, N. “Application of Metabolomics to Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Research.” Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi 71, no.1 (2016):94-99.

Kilburn K. “Effects of Diesel Exhaust on Neurobehavioral and Pulmonary Functions.” Archives of Environmental Health 55, no.1 (January/February 2000):11-17.

Kimata, H. “Effect of Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds on Plasma Levels of Neuropeptides, Nerve Growth Factor and Histamine in Patients with Self-Reported Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health207, no. 2 (February 2004):159-63.

Kimata, H. “Exposure to Road Traffic Enhances Allergic Skin Wheal Responses and Increases Plasma Neuropeptides and Neurotrophins in Patients with Atopic Eczema/Dermatitis Syndrome.” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 207, no 1. (January 2004):45-49.

Lee, T.G. “Health Symptoms Caused by Molds in a Courthouse.” Archives of Environmental Health 58, no. 7 (July 2003):442-46.

Levallois, P., Neutra, R., Lee, G., Hristoa, L. “Study of Self-Reported Hypersensitivity to Electromagnetic Fields in California.” Environmental Health Perspectives 110, Suppl. 4 (August 2002):619-23.

McKeown-Eyssen, G., Baines, C., Cole, D.E., Riley, N., Tyndale, R.F., Marshall, L, Jazmaji, V. “Case-Control Study of Genotypes in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: CYP2D6, NAT1, NAT2, PON1, PON2 and MTHFR.” International Journal of Epidemiology (July 15, 2004):971-78.

Millqvist, E., Ternesten-Hasséus, E., Stǻhl, A., Bende, M. “Changes in Levels of Nerve Growth Factor in Nasal Secretions After Capsaicin Inhalation in Patients with Airway Symptoms from Scents and Chemicals.” Environmental Health Perspectives 113, no. 7 (July 2005):849-52.

Nogué, S., Fernández-Solá, J., Rovira, E., Montori, E., Fernández-Huerta, J.M., Munné, P. “Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: Study of 52 Cases.” Medicina Clinica (Barcelona) 129, no. 3 (June 16, 2007):96-98.

Nutter, T.J., Jiang, N., Cooper, B.Y. “Persistent Na+ and K+ Channel Dysfunctions After Chronic Exposure to Insecticides and Pyridostigmine Bromide.” Neurotoxicology 39 (December 2013):72-83.

Odegard, T.N., Cooper, C.M., Farris, E.A., Arduengo, J., Bartlett, J., Haley, R. “Memory Impairment Exhibited by Veterans with Gulf War Illness.” Neurocase 19, no. 4 (August 2013): 316-27.

Ojo, J.O., Abdullah, L., Evans, J., Reed, J.M., Montague, H., Mullan, M.J., Crawford, F.C. “Exposure to an Organophosphate Pesticide, Individually or in Combination with Other Gulf War Agents, Impairs Synaptic Integrity and Neuronal Differentiation, and Is Accompanied by Subtle Microvascular Injury in a Mouse Model of Gulf War Agent Exposure.” Neuropathology (September 30, 2013):109-27.

Overstreet, D.H., Djuric, V. “A Genetic Rat Model of Cholinergic Hypersensitivity: Implications for Chemical Intolerance, Chronic Fatigue, and Asthma.” Annals of the New York Academy of Science 933 (March 2001):92-102.

Pall, M.L. “Elevated Nitric Oxide-Peroxynitrite Theory of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: Central Role of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors in the Sensitivity Mechanism.” Environmental Health Perspectives 111, no. 12 (September 2003):1461-64.

Pall M.L., Anderson J.H. “The Vanilloid Receptor as a Putative Target of Diverse Chemicals in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Archives of Environmental Health 59, no. 7 (2004):363-75.

Pigatto, P.D., Minoia, C., Ronchi, A., Brambilla, L., Ferrucci, S.M., Spadari, F., Passoni, M., Somalvico, F., Bombeccari, G.P., Guzzi, G. “Allergological and Toxicological Aspects in a Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Cohort.” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity (2013): 356235.

Piroli, A., Ciccozzi, A., Petrucci, E., Paladini, A., Marsili, I., Panella, L., Santucci, C., Coaccioli, S., Marinangeli, F. “Anaesthesia Management in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome.” International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology26, no. 4 (October-December 2013):961-64.

Rayhan, R.U., Raksit, M.P., Timbol, C.R., Adewuyi, O., Vanmeter, J.W., Baraniuk, J.N. “Prefrontal Lactate Predicts Exercise-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Gulf War Illness.” American Journal Translational Research 5, no. 2 (2013):212-23.

Rayhan, R.U., Ravindran, M.K., Baraniuk, J.N. “Migraine in Gulf War Illness and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Prevalence, Potential Mechanisms, and Evaluation.” Frontiers of Physiology 4 (July 24, 2013):181.

Rayhan, R.U., Stevens, B.W., Raksit, M.P., Ripple, J.A., Timbol, C.R., Adewuyi, O., VanMeter, J.W., Baraniuk, J.N. “Exercise Challenge in Gulf War Illness Reveals Two Subgroups with Altered Brain Structure and Function.” PLoS One 8, no. 6. (June 14, 2013):e63903.

Rayhan, R.U., Stevens, B.W., Timbol, C.R., Adewuyi, O., Walitt, B, VanMeter, J.W., Baraniuk, J.N. “Increased Brain White Matter Axial Diffusivity Associated with Fatigue, Pain and Hyperalgesia in Gulf War Illness” PLoS One 8, no. 3 (2013):e58493.

Schnakenberg, E., Fabig, K., Stanulla, M., Strobl, N., Lustig, M., Fabig, N., Schloot, W. “A Cross-Sectional Study of Self-Reported Chemical-Related Sensitivity Is Associated with Gene Variants of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes.” Environmental Health 6, no. 1 (January 2007):6.

Simon, T.R., Rea, W.J. “Use of Functional Brain Imaging in the Evaluation of Exposure to Mycotoxins and Toxins Encountered in Desert Storm/Desert Shield.” Archives of Environmental Health 58, no. 7 (July 2003):406-9.

Spencer, T.R., Schur, P.M. “The Challenge of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Journal of Environmental Health 70, no. 10 (June 2008):24-27.

Steinemann, A.C., Gallagher, L.G., Davis, A.L., MacGregor, I.C. “Chemical Emissions from Residential Dryer Vents During Use of Fragranced Laundry Products.” Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health 6, no. 1 (March 2013):151-56.

Steinemann, A.C. “Fragranced Consumer Products and Undisclosed Ingredients.” Environmental Impact Assessment Review 29, no. 1 (2009):32-38.

Steinemann, A.C., MacGregor, I.C., Gordon, S.M., Gallagher, L.G., Davis, A.L., Ribeiro, D.S., Wallace, L.A.. “Fragranced Consumer Products: Chemicals Emitted, Ingredients Unlisted.”  Environmental Impact Assessment Review 31, no. 3 (2011):328-33.

Steinemann, A.C. “Volatile Emissions from Common Consumer Products.”
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 8, no. 3 (June 2015):273-81.

Ternesten-Hasseus, E., Bende, M., Millqvist, E. “Increased Capsaicin Cough Sensitivity in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 44, no. 11 (2002):1012-17.

Ternesten-Hasseus, E., Larsson C., Larsson, S., Millqvist, E. “Capsaicin Sensitivity in Patients with Chronic Cough: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study.” Cough 9, no. 1 (February 28, 2013):5.

Tillman, G.D., Calley, C.S., Green, T.A., Buhl, V.I., Biggs, M.M., Spence, J.S., Briggs, R.W., Haley, R.W., Kraut, M.A., Hart, J. Jr. “Visual Event-Related Potentials as Markers of Hyperarousal in Gulf War Illness: Evidence Against a Stress-Related Etiology.” Psychiatry Research 211, no.3 (March 30, 2013):257-67.

Wiesmuller, G.A., et al. “Nasal Function in Self-Reported Chemically Intolerant Individuals.” Archives of Environmental Health 57, no. 3 (May-June 2002):247-54.

Yun, M.J., Kang, D.M., Lee, K.H., Kim, Y.K., Kim, J.E. “Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Caused by Exposure to Ignition Coal Fumes: A Case Report.” Annals of Occupational & Environmental Medicine 25, no. 1 (November 1, 2013):32.


Research published from 1990 through 1999

Antelman, S.M. “Time-Dependent Sensitization in Animals: A Possible Model of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity in Humans.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 10, nos. 4-5 (July-October 1994):335-42.

Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics. “Advancing the Understanding of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 8, no. 4 (1992):1.

Ashford, N., Heinzow, B., Lütjen, K., Marouli, C., Mølhave, L., Mönch, B., Papadopoulos, S., Rest, K., Rosdahl, D., Siskos, P., Velonakis, E., et al. “Chemical Sensitivity in Selected European Countries: An Exploratory Study.” A Report to the European Commission. Ergonomia, 1995.

ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). “Proceedings of the Conference on Low-Level Exposure to Chemicals and Neurobiologic Sensitivity.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 10, nos. 4-5 (1994):25.

Bartha, L., Baumzweiger, W., Buscher, D., Callender, M., Dahl, K., Davidoff, A., et al. “Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: A 1999 Consensus.” Archives of Environmental Health 54, no. 3 (1999):147-49.

Bascom, R. “Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: A Respiratory Disorder.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 8, no. 4 (1991):221-28.

Bascom, R., Meggs, W., Frampton, M., Hudnell, K., Killburn, K., Kobal, G., Medinsky, M., Rea, W. “Neurogenic Inflammation: With Additional Discussion of Central and Perceptual Integration of Nonneurogenic Inflammation.” Environmental Health Perspectives105, Suppl. 2 (1997):531-37.

Bell, I.R. “Clinically Relevant EEG Studies and Psychophysiological Findings: Possible Neural Mechanisms for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Toxicology 111 (1996):101-17.

Bell, I.R. “White Paper: Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Sensitivity to Low-Level Chemicals: A Neural Sensitization Model.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 10, nos. 4-5 (July-October 1994):277-312.

Bell, I., Baldwin, C., Fernandez, M., Schwartz, G. “Neural Sensitization Model for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: Overview of Theory and Empirical Evidence.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 15, nos. 3-4 (1999):295-304.

Bell, I., Rossi, J., Gilbert, M., Kobal, G., Morrow, L., Newlin, D., Sorg, B., Wood, R. “Testing the Neural Sensitization and Kindling Hypothesis for Illness from Low Levels of Environmental Chemicals.” Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Suppl. 2 (1997):539-47.

Buchwald, D., Garrity, D. “Comparison of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia, and Multiple Chemical Sensitivities.” Archives of Internal Medicine 154 (1994): 2049-53.

Callender, T.J., Morrow, L., Submaranium, K. “Evaluation of Chronic Neurological Sequelae After Acute Pesticide Poisoning Using Brain SPECT Scans.” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 41 (1994):275-84.

Cone, J., Sult, T. “Acquired Intolerance to Solvents Following Pesticide/Solvent Exposure in a Building: A New Group of Workers at Risk for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 8, no. 4 (1992):29-39.

Costa, L., Li, W., Richter, R., Shih, D., Lusis, A., Furlong, C. “The Role of Paraoxonase (PON1) in the Detoxication of Organophosphates and Its Human Polymorphism.” Chemico-Biological Interactions 119-120 (1999):429-38.

Davidoff, A., Keyl, P. “Symptoms and Health Status in Individuals with Multiple Chemical Sensitivities Syndrome from Four Reported Sensitizing Exposures and a General Population Comparison Group.” Archives of Environmental Health 51, no. 3 (1996):201-13.

Davidoff, A., Meggs, W. “Development of Multiple Chemical Sensitivities in Laborers After Acute Gasoline Fume Exposure in an Underground Tunneling Operation.” Archives of Environmental Health 53, no.3 (1998):183-89.

Doty, R., Deems, D., Frye, R., Pelberg, R., Shapiro, A. “Olfactory Sensitivity, Nasal Resistance, and Autonomic Function in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivities.” Archives of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 114 (1988):1422-27.

Fernandez, M., Bell, I., Schwartz, G. “EEG Sensitization During Chemical Exposure in Women With and Without Chemical Sensitivity of Unknown Etiology.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 15, nos. 3-4 (1999):305-12.

Fiedler, N., Kipen, H., Natelson, B., Ottenweller, J. “Chemical Sensitivities and the Gulf War: Department of Veterans Affairs Research Center in Basic and Clinical Science Studies of Environmental Hazards.” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 24 (1996):S129-S138.

Fincher, E.F., Chang, T.S., Harrell, E.H., Kettkecut, M.C., Rea, W.J., Johnson, A.R., Hickey, H.C., Simon, T.R. “Comparison of Single Photon Computed Tomography Findings in Cases of Healthy Adults and Solvent-Exposed Adults.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 31 (1997):4-14.

Galland, L. “Biochemical Abnormalities in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivities.” Occupational Medicine 2, no. 4 (October-December 1987):713-20.

Haley, R., Billecke, S., La Du, B. “Association of Low PON1 Type Q (Type A) Arylesterase Activity with Neurologic Symptom Complexes in Gulf War Veterans.” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 157, no. 3 (1999):227-33.

Haley, R.W., Kurt, T.L., Hom, J. “Is There a Gulf War Syndrome? Searching for Syndromes by Factor Analysis of Symptoms.” JAMA 277 (1997):215-222.

Heuser, G. “Diagnostic Markers in Clinical Immunotoxicology and Neurotoxicology.” Editorial. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 1, no. 4 (1992):v-x.

Heuser, G., Mena, I., Alamous, F. “Neurospect Findings in Patients Exposed to Neurotoxic Chemicals.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 10, nos. 4-5 (1994):461-571.

Heuser, G., Mena, I. “Neurospect in Neurotoxic Chemical Exposure. Demonstration of Long-Term Functional Abnormalities.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 14, no. 6 (1998):813-27.

Ionescu, G., Merk, M., Bradford, R. “Simple Chemiluminesence Assays for Free Radicals in Venous Blood and Serum Samples: Results in Atopic, Psoriasis, MCS, and Cancer Patients.” Forsch Komplementarmed 6, no. 6 (December 1999):294-300.

Kipen, H.M., Hallman, W., Kang, H., Fiedler, N., Natelson, B.H. “Prevalence of Chronic Fatigue and Chemical Sensitivities in Gulf Registry Veterans.” Archives of Environmental Health 54, no. 5 (September-October 1999):309-11.

Kruetzer, R., Neutra, R., Lashuay, N. “Prevalence of People Reporting Sensitivities to Chemicals in a Population-Based Survey.” American Journal of Epidemiology 150, no. 1 (1999):1-12.

Lax, M., Henneberger, P. “Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivities in an Occupational Health Clinic: Presentation and Follow-up.” Archives of Environmental Health 50, no. 6 (1995):425-31.

Lieberman, A.D., Craven, M.R. “Reactive Intestinal Dysfunction Syndrome (RIDS) Caused by Chemical Exposures.” Archives of Environmental Health 54, no. 5 (September-October 1999):365-66.

McFadden, S. “Phenotype Variation in Xenobiotic Metabolism and Adverse Environmental Response: Focus on Sulfur-Dependant Detoxification Pathways.” Toxicology 111 (1996):43-65.

Meggs, W.J. “Hypothesis for Induction and Propagation of Chemical Sensitivity Based on Biopsy Studies.” Review. Environmental Health Perspectives 105 (March 1997).

Meggs, W.J. “Neurogenic Switching: A Hypothesis for a Mechanism for Shifting the Site of Inflammation in Allergy and Chemical Sensitivity.” Environmental Health Perspectives 103, no. 1 (January 1995):54-56.

Meggs, W.J. “RADS and RUDS-The Toxic Induction of Asthma and Rhinitis.” Clinical Toxicology 32, no. 5 (1994):487-501.

Meggs, W.J., Cleveland, C. “Rhinolaryngoscopic Examination of Patients with the Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome.” Archives of Environmental Health 41, no. 1 (1993):14-18.

Meggs, W.J., Dunn, K., Bloch, R., Goodman, P., Davidoff, L. “Prevalence and Nature of Allergy and Chemical Sensitivity in a General Population.” Archives of Environmental Health 51, no. 4 (1996):275-82.

Meggs, W.J., Elsheik, T., Metzger, W.J., Albernaz, M., Bloch, R.M. “Nasal Pathology and Ultrastructure in Patients with Chronic Airway Inflammation Following an Irritant Exposure.” Journal of Toxicology-Clinical Toxicology 34, no. 4 (1996):383-96.

Miller, C.S. “Possible Models for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: Conceptual Issues and Role of the Limbic System. Advancing the Understanding of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 8, no. 4 (1992):181-202.

Miller, C.S. “White Paper: Chemical Sensitivity: History and Phenomenology.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 10, no. 4-5 (1994):253-76.

Miller, C.S., Gammage, R.B., Jankovic, J.T. “Exacerbation of Chemical Sensitivity: A Case Study.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 15, nos. 3-4 (April-June 1999):398-402.

Miller, C.S., Mitzel, H. “Chemical Sensitivity Attributed to Pesticide Exposure Versus Remodeling.” Archives of Environmental Health 50, no. 2 (1995):119.

Miller, C.S. “Toxicant-Induced Loss of Tolerance: An Emerging Theory of Disease?” Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Suppl. 2 (1997):445-53.

Miller, C.S., Prihoda, T. “The Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (EESI): A Standardized Approach for Measuring Chemical Intolerances for Research and Applications.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 15 (1999):370-85.

Miller, C.S., Prihoda, T. “A Controlled Comparison of Symptoms and Chemical Intolerances Reported by Gulf War Veterans, Implant Recipients, and Persons with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 15 (1999):386-97.

Miller, C.S., Ashford, N., Doty, R., Lamielle, M., Otto, D., Rahill, A., Wallace, L. “Empirical Approaches for the Investigation of Toxicant-Induced Loss of Tolerance.” Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Suppl. 2 (1997):515-19.

Millqvist, E., Bengtsson, U., Lowhagen, O. “Provocations with Perfume in the Eyes Induce Airway Symptoms in Patients with Sensory Hyperreactivity.” Allergy 54, no. 5 (May 1999):495-99.

Nethercott, J., Davidoff, L., Curbow, B., Abbey, H. “Multiple Chemical Sensitivities Syndrome: Toward a Working Case Definition.” Archives of Environmental Health 48 (1993):19-26.

Overstreet, D., Miller, C., Janowsky, D., Russell, R. “Potential Animal Model of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity with Cholinergic Supersensitivity.” Toxicology 111 (1996):119-34.

Rogers, W.R., Miller, C.S., Bunegin, L. “A Rat Model of Neurobehavioral Sensitization to Toluene.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 15, nos. 3-4 (April-June 1999):356-69.

Ross, G.H. “Clinical Characteristics of Chemical Sensitivity: An Illustrative Case History of Asthma and MCS.” Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Suppl. 2 (March 1997):437-41.

Ross, G.H. “History and Clinical Presentation of the Chemically Sensitive Patient.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 8, no. 4 (July-August 1992):21-28.

Ross, G.H., Rea, W.J., Johnson, A.R., Hickey, D.C., Simon, T.R. “Neurotoxicity in Single Photon Computed Tomography Brain Scans of Patients Reporting Chemical Sensitivities.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 15 (1999):415-20.

Rossi, J. “Sensitization Induced by Kindling and Kindling-Related Phenomena as a Model for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Toxicology 111, nos. 1-3 (July 17, 1996):87-100.

Shirakawa, S., Ishikawa, S., Miyata, M., Rea, W.J., Johnson, A.R. “A Pupillographical Study on the Presence of Organochlorine Pesticides in Autonomic Nerve Disturbance.” Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 94, no. 4 (April 1990):418-23.

Simon, T.R., Hicket, D.C., Fincher, C.E., Johnson, A.R., Ross, G.H., Rea, W.J. “Single Photon Computed Tomography of the Brain in Patients with Chemical Sensitivities.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 10, nos. 4-5 (1994):573-77.

Sorg, B.A., Hochstatter, T. “Behavioral Sensitization After Repeated Formaldehyde Exposure in Rats.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 15, nos. 3-4 (April-June 1999):346-55.

Sorg, B.A. “Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: Potential Role for Neuralsensitization.” Review. Critical Reviews in Neurobiology 13, no. 3 (1999):283-316.

Sorg, B. “Proposed Animal Model for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity in Studies with Formalin.” Toxicology 111 (1996):135-45.

Tuite, J.J., Haley, R.W. Meteorological and Intelligence Evidence of Long-Distance Transit of Chemical Weapons Fallout from Bombing Early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Neuroepi-demiology (December 2012) 40 3 160-177.


Research published before 1990

Randolph, T.G. “Clinical Manifestations of Individual Susceptibility to Insecticides and Related Materials.” Industrial Medicine and Surgery 34 (February 1965):134-42.

Randolph, T.G. “Dynamics, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Food Allergy.” Review. Otolaryngology Clinics of North America 7, no. 3 (October 1974):617-35.

Randolph, T.G. “Ecologic Orientation in Medicine: Comprehensive Environmental Control in Diagnosis and Therapy.” Annals of Allergy 23 (January 1965):7-22.

Randolph, T.G. “Human Ecology and Susceptibility to the Chemical Environment.” Annals of Allergy 19 (May 1961):518-40.

Randolph, T.G. “Human Ecology and Susceptibility to the Chemical Environment: Air Pollution.” Annals of Allergy 19 (June 1961):657-77.

Randolph, T.G. “Human Ecology and Susceptibility to the Chemical Environment.” Annals of Allergy 19 (July 1961):779-99.

Randolph, T.G. “Human Ecology and Susceptibility to the Chemical Environment.” Annals of Allergy 19 (August 1961):908-29.


Thanks to The Chemical Sensitivity Foundation for this list.

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